Material separation caused by mechanical or dynamic overload.

In addition to cold and warm cracks (s. a. Hot crack) (depending on the temperature at which they occurred), cracks (fractures) are also differentiated by the type of operating loads under which they emerge and result in a fatigue failure or forced failure (Figure 1), for example. Cracks in cast parts may emerge due to impairment of shrinkage or heat stresses, and even during heat treatment.

Additional references:
Solidification crack
Crack propagation
Crack initiation
Crack characterization
Crack resistance
Fracture toughness

  • Figure 1: Forced failure, pure rosette graphite failure, 500:1