Stationary or mobile machines accomplishing tasks defined by a certain program. A term derived from the Czech language (robot) meaning “Human machines”.
According to the VDI Directive 2860, robots are nowadays defined as follows: “Industrial robots are universally applicable moving machines with several axes which are freely programmable (i.e. without mechanical intervention) and sensor driven regarding their movement sequence, course or angles. They can be equipped with grippers, tools or other means of production and are cabable of accomplishing handling and/or production tasks.”
Robots must not be confused with supply and removal devices or simple types of manipulators. There is a wide range of applications in foundries where robots are used. For example the cleaning of series castings (s. video in the Robot processing reference), as dosing and pouring robot (figure 1), as operating device of automatic die casting machines for casting removal (figure 2 or removal robot), the feed of trimming presses, robot processing and much more.
Leading manufacturers of industrial robots include ABB Automation GmbH, Friedberg; Reis Robotics GmbH, Obernburg am Main or KUKA Roboter GmbH, Gertshofen.