Tendency towards defects


Clay-bonded sands have a tendency to develop sand expansion defects, such as scabbing, rat tails, veining and grooves.

According to eq. 1, this tendency towards defects can be expressed as the quotient of compressive stress and wet tensile strength:

eg.1:Fehlerneigung F = frac{DS frac{N}{cm^2}}{sigma_n frac{N}{cm^2}}

Both parameters are determined during mold sand testing. They are combined in the scabbing time diagram (Fig. 1).



  • Fig. 1: Scabbing time diagram, source: S&B Industrial Minerals, Marl, GermanyLeft: scabbing diagramRight: effects on scabbing tendency